What is antifa。 Who are Antifa?

What is antifa? And what do its supporters want?

, the anti-fascist movements grew out of leftist politics of the late '80s, primarily under the umbrella of Anti-Racist Action. " Three August 2020 DHS draft reports did not mention antifa as a domestic terrorism risk and ranked white supremacy as the top risk, higher than that of foreign terrorist groups. Those on the right characterize it as a domestic terrorist organization or use antifa as a catch-all term for any left-leaning or liberal protest actions. Enzinna, Wes April 27, 2017. There is little evidence of a chain of command or a stable leadership structure. That's not to say the FBI hasn't also taken aim at antifa. Most of them engage in commonly accepted forms of political activism. Opposed to violent supremacy An anti-fascist protest in Berlin, 1928. Although this has been described as "clearly a ploy to associate the Democratic Party with antifa", those on the right seized upon it. You can check out , read more from or follow our updates on and. Higgins remarked to the that "[t]his was a transparent and quite pathetic attempt, but I wouldn't be surprised if white nationalist groups try to mount more sophisticated attacks in the future". There are antifa groups, such as Rose City Antifa in Portland and NYC Antifa, just as there are feminist groups, such as Code Pink. These physical confrontations are better understood as spontaneous clashes between Antifa supporters and their white supremacist rivals, including. "The designation would grant federal law enforcement broad powers, under the federal terrorism code, to surveil and investigate anyone labeled as antifa," the Southern Poverty Law Center in a statement. " In the years since then, media coverage has identified antifa as participants, and sometimes agitators, in clashes at numerous rallies and protests around the country. John, Paige; Oreskes, Benjamin; Zahniser, David August 27, 2017. So they need to make a statement head-on against the people who they regard as racist. Anarchists believe that governments throughout the world repress their citizens through authoritarian laws, institutions, and practices. Mallin, Alexander June 3, 2020. Jim Jordan has , but not in the monolithic, hierarchical way in which he and many other Americans are accustomed to thinking of political associations. Oppenheim, Maya August 22, 2017. Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas July 2, 2019. Rushed into print after the US president said there were 'fine people on both sides' of the Charlottesville clashes, Mark Bray's guide provides tactics for those hoping to 'defeat the resurgent far right. " is "based on which groups they are a part of and endorse. They will sometimes chant against fascism and against law enforcement in the same breath. " notes that "[w]hile antifa's political leanings are often described as 'far-left,' experts say members' radical views vary and can intersect with communism, socialism and anarchism. Some scholars argue that antifa is a legitimate response to the rise of the far right and that antifa's violence such as is not equivalent to. And in Forks, Washington, a multiracial family on a camping trip was by locals who accused them of being with antifa. Last week, three ex-military men who police say self-identify as Boogaloo Bois were arrested on the way to a Las Vegas Black Lives Matter protest with full gas cans and Molotov cocktails in their car. In other areas, experts say antifa is simply too small a presence to be a driving force in protests. Where has the movement demonstrated? " LaFree also questioned "whether antifa can be considered to constitute a 'group' at this point in time" and stressed "how complicated it is to distinguish terrorism from other forms of illegal violence" such as those by antifa supporters. It is highly and comprises an array of groups that aim to achieve their objectives through the use of both nonviolent and violent rather than through policy. Antifa: Scope and Tactics: Today's antifa argue they are the on-the-ground defense against individuals they believe are promoting fascism in the United States. Antifa is anti-government and anti-capitalist, and their methodologies are often perceived as more closely aligned with anarchists than the mainstream left. To this point in time antifa seems to be more of a movement than a group. In April 2017, the Direct Action Alliance and the Oregon Students Empowered, described as "two self-described antifascist groups", threatened to disrupt the in Portland, Oregon after hearing that the would participate. More recently, many key organizers behind the Anti-Racist Action Network and other groups have drawn on anarchist ideas in coordinating their activism. According to the , Wray "did not dispute that antifa activists were a serious concern", stating that antifa was a "real thing" and that the FBI had undertaken "any number of properly predicated investigations into what we would describe as violent anarchist extremists", including into individuals who identify with antifa, whom the FBI identified as "a movement or an ideology" rather than as "a group or an organization". Stan, Adele August 14, 2017. ] On the far left, Antifa represents a fast-growing crusade designed to confront all forms of fascism, principally the aforementioned groups but also, at times, law enforcement. " Scott Crow says that antifa adherents believe that property destruction does not "equate to violence". Violence tends to confirm that view. In the postwar period, antifa groups resurged to fight neo-Nazi groups, particularly in Germany. Witnesses have said they saw both black-clad militant activists who could be antifa and white-supremacist agitators breaking windows and starting fires, but records show that the vast majority of those arrested were from local communities. Significant investments of time and energy are expected. Such beliefs include different varieties of anarchism, communism, and socialism. Most people who show up to counter or oppose white supremacist public events are peaceful demonstrators, but when antifa show up, as they frequently do, they can increase the chances that an event may turn violent. The varied and decentralized nature of anti-fascist efforts means it includes virtually anyone who opposes violent enforcement of social inequalities to engage in activism. Authorities pleaded with residents to ignore the false rumors. This is why most established civil rights organizations criticize antifa tactics as dangerous and counterproductive. Before he could cause much damage, the 68-year-old man was shot and killed by the police. " Antifa in prime time Over President Trump's years in office, coverage of "antifa" has skyrocketed in the mainstream press. In addition, they use violence to oppose their ideological enemies, even if they are from groups they believe are not inferior, such as heterosexual white men. Mindock, Clark June 22, 2018. 4 Antifa is funded by liberal financiers like George Soros. That authority rests on no democratic foundation. The groups ignored the park's denial of permit due to "clear and present danger to the public health or safety", but this was thwarted when Facebook and Twitter terminated their organizing accounts and pages, and by one group leader's retreat due to "fears of violence from counter-protesters". But you also see that Facebook has become fertile soil for the mushrooming of small groups and lone actors. Several analyses, reports, and studies concluded that antifa is not a major domestic terrorism risk and ranked far-right extremism and white supremacy as the top risk. Bernd, Candice September 7, 2017. Right-wing figures and other commentators on social media also have unspecified antifa members of starting wildfires on the West Coast, prompting police and fire officials to appeal to the public to what one agency called "an UNTRUE rumor. My own research has found that a are women, people of color, members of LGBTQ communities, or otherwise have some characteristics fascists seek to control or eliminate. Lozada, Carlos September 1, 2017. '" Law enforcement and officials In June 2017, the antifa movement was linked to "anarchist extremism" by the. 2 Antifa masterminds violence at Black Lives Matter protests. What they do have generally comes from members or occasional solidarity fundraisers. It was a call to arms for militant anti-fascists, or 'antifa' — and Hines was heeding it. White supremacists use even more extreme violence to spread their ideologies of hate, to intimidate ethnic minorities, and undermine democratic norms. " Activists typically organize protests via social media and through websites. After a white supremacist into a crowd of counter-protesters, killing a woman named , Mr. Many looters, police said, were professional criminals. Ellis, Emma Grey February 4, 2017. Their motto was "We go where they go" by which they meant that they would confront activists in concerts and actively remove their materials from public places. " Similarly, Mark Bray argues that "[i]t's also important to remember that these are self-described revolutionaries. It's unclear how many people identify as antifa, but it's probably a few thousand at most; it is certain that they make up only a tiny fraction of the hundreds of thousands of Americans who have been demonstrating in more than 100 cities against the killing of George Floyd. According to the , antifa protesters have engaged in "mob violence, attacking a small showing of supporters of President Trump and others they accused, sometimes inaccurately, of being white supremacists or Nazis. The term "antifa" is short for anti-fascist; it's used both by its adherents and its foes. A diverse range of participants and tactics falls under the umbrella of a broad effort to stop fascism. After broke out amid the protests in Minneapolis following the death of George Floyd, Wray said: "We're seeing people who are exploiting this situation to pursue violent, extremist agendas — anarchists like ANTIFA, and other agitators. Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, U. Whereas it fulfilled the requirements of an action led by "sub-national actors" with "violence or threat of violence", it lacked in particular the "intentionality of the incident", that is the "result of a conscious calculation on the part of the perpetrators. In fact, the president has willingly exploited this low-level violence to and raise funds for his re-election campaign. Even today, many anti-fascists follow anarchist principles. A study by found that unsubstantiated claims of antifa involvement were one of three dominant themes in misinformation and conspiracy theories around the protests, alongside claims that Floyd's death had been faked and claims of involvement by George Soros. The vast majority of antifa militants are radical anti-capitalists who oppose the Democratic Party. According to the SPLC , designating antifa as a domestic terrorist organization is dangerous and a threat to civil liberties. They went there to react to a particular situation. " Another common conspiracy theory has alleged, , that billionaire philanthropist is funding antifa. In June of that year, antifa forces turned out to protest a pro-Trump free-speech in Portland. Mostly, people aligned with antifa are on the left of the political spectrum. Article content continued Faced with movement with no defined structure or a location for its headquarters, authorities would have a hard time making a case for that designation. " Historian Mark Bray wrote that the adherents "reject turning to the police or the state to halt the advance of white supremacy. ] Antifa, a far-left anti-fascist movement. They're people that are controlling the streets. " In September 2017, obtained confidential documents and interviews indicating that the DHS and the FBI believed that "anarchist extremists" were the primary instigators of violence at public rallies against a range of targets in April 2016. The were founded in Europe and North America between the world wars, and were primarily organized by anarchists, communists and socialists — three groups that were frequently targets of fascist violence. In June 2020, Republican Senator advocated using military force to quell nationwide , calling for the to be deployed to combat what he called "Antifa terrorists". This article originally appeared on USA TODAY:. Chauncey Devega of described antifa as an organizing strategy, not a group of people. Prominent promoters of the unfounded rumors included adherents of the conspiracy theory. One false claim that six antifa activists had been arrested for setting fires was specifically amplified by "Q", i. Is it really just about resisting fascists or does it have a greater, less defensible agenda? One involved violent confrontations at a University of California, Berkeley event featuring right-wing commentator Milo Yiannopoulos, and another involving white supremacist groups at a Unite the Right rally to protest the removal of a Confederate statue in Charlottesville, Va. Antifa activists reject both and anti-fascism. Those fake antifa accounts have been repeatedly reported on as real by right-leaning media outlets. Some residents refused to evacuate based on the rumors, choosing to defend their homes from the alleged invasions. Modern antifa politics can be traced to opposition to the infiltration of Britain's scene by in the 1970s and 1980s, and the emergence of in Germany following the. ] The people preventing Republicans from safely assembling on the streets of Portland may consider themselves fierce opponents of the authoritarianism growing on the American right. What is antifa and why is Donald Trump targeting it? Antifa is a in the United States. He elaborated: A lot of times these groups get labeled as gangs or terrorists. " On September 18, 2020, Trump publicly criticized FBI Director and hinted that he could fire him over Wray's testimony about antifa and. Informal or everyday anti-fascism can include speaking out against bigotry, standing up for victims of fascist harassment or confronting fascists in public places. One neo-Nazi was convicted of homicide when he rammed his car into a crowd, killing protester Heather Heyer, 32. "What about the alt-left that came charging at, what you say, the alt-right? Mallett, Whitney May 10, 2017. And so we go to cause conflict, to shut them down where they are, because we don't believe that Nazis or fascists of any stripe should have a mouthpiece. Has antifa been violent in the past? And it's a quick way to brand part of the opposition. "It's a lot of a kind of private investigator work that sometimes spills out into the streets with confrontations," Bray said. For example, she says, a man ran off protesters in McAllen, Texas. Personal and collective self-defense The arts have long been a part of anti-fascist efforts, including by American singer-songwriter Woody Guthrie in the 1940s. -area protests over Floyd's killing on May 31, 2020. For human beings to be truly free, they maintain, existing governments must be replaced by local, voluntary associations that organize social and economic life through. A of those individuals arrested on federal charges shows no links to Antifa. President Trump voiced his support on Twitter. This article was first published in the latest issue of The Week magazine. Michael Forest Reinoehl, 48, was considered a prime suspect in the of 39-year-old Aaron "Jay" Danielson, a right-wing activist who was shot during heated demonstrations in Portland. According to its website, its main focus is "any work that prevents fascist organizing, and when that is not possible, provides consequences to fascist organizers. According to , police asked persons carrying firearms including both antifa members and members of the far-right group at a September 2017 rally in Kansas City to remove ammunition from their weapons. In June 2020, Twitter shut down multiple fake antifa accounts that were inciting violence against white suburbs; subsequent investigations the accounts to Identity Evropa, a white supremacist organization. In , groups of armed right-wing vigilantes occupied streets in response to false rumors that antifa activists were planning to travel to the city while similar rumors led to threats being made against activists planning peaceful protests in. Cammeron, Brenna August 14, 2017. In every other way they are worlds apart. Still, there have been violent attacks. , are particularly well-organized and active online and on , while its members are individually anonymous. has no official national leadership, though followers have organized themselves into small, local cells that sometimes coordinate with other movements, such as Black Lives Matter. , the term "antifa" has been thrust back into the national conversation after multiple officials, , have blamed the groups for rioting and looting. In 2007, , likely the first group to utilize the name antifa, was formed in by former ARA members. In August 2017, a PunchWhiteWomen photo hoax campaign spread by fake antifa Twitter accounts. That word can be an inexact term, but generally antifa activists see fascism as the of biological and social inequalities between people. Gittlitz and Natasha Lennard have also argued against Chomsky and others, citing the 2017 events at Charlottesville and 's suspension of his college tour in March 2018, respectively, as "a victory" and as "a sharp rebuttal to the glut of claims that antifa practices serve as a gift to the far right. A DHS draft from September 2020 reportedly named groups as the biggest terror threat to America. By choosing I Accept, you consent to our use of cookies and other tracking technologies. To date, there has been one suspected , which took place on August 29, 2020, in Portland, Oregon. Clarke, Colin; Kenney, Michael June 23, 2020. But this year the most lethal violence has come from anti-government activists, such as anarchists and militia-types, Wray said. Antifa activists actions have received support and criticism from various organizations and pundits, with some on the criticizing antifa for its willingness to adopt violent direct actions and for being counterproductive or backfiring by emboldening the right and their allies. European activist groups that originally organized to oppose -era fascist dictatorships re-emerged in the 1970s and 1980s to oppose and , eventually spreading to the United States. Trump administration In August 2017, a petition was lodged with the White House petitioning system calling upon President to formally classify "AntiFa" as terrorist. Many, many people are anti-fascists. Some of its members employ the objectionable means of initiating extralegal street violence; but its stated end of resisting fascism is laudable, while its actual end is contested. The oldest existing American anti-racist group, , was founded in Portland in 2007 after shut down Hammerfest, the skinhead music festival. " In 2020, the ADL noted that while there have been hundreds of murders by far-right groups in the last few decades, there has only been. "It's like calling Deadheads or Red Sox Nation" an organization, said Brian Levin, director of the Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism at California State University, San Bernardino. During the , an estimated one hundred antifa protesters joined a crowd of 2,000—4,000 other protesters to confront alt-right demonstrators and Trump supporters who showed up for a "Say No to Marxism" rally that had been cancelled by organizers due to security concerns. Analyses and studies Questions on how effective antifa is and whether it is a reasonable response have been raised and discussed by news media. The writer of the petition later stated he had created it to "bring our broken right side together" and to "prop up antifa as a punching bag". These groups are rarely militant or violent. Right-wing media blames antifa members for rioting and looting. Despite claims by President Trump and Attorney General William P. Charges were eventually for the bulk of the defendants, while others were by juries. in the 1930s, and members believe that the Nazis would not have been able to take power in Germany if anti-fascists had fought them aggressively. " Hoaxes about antifa that tend to inaccurately portray antifa as a single organization with leaders and secret sources of funding have been spread by activists, media organizations and politicians, including officials and the. But the Trump administration's own Department of Homeland Security and FBI don't appear to view antifa as a. Another high-profile fake antifa account was banned from Twitter after it posted with a geotag originating in Russia. In 2007, neo-Nazis attempting to reinvigorate the vestiges of war planned to hold a white-power music festival near Portland. Though it was clearly a ploy to associate the Democratic Party with antifa, right wingers seized upon the apparent conspiracy. " But much of what politicians say about antifa isn't quite true. After a white supremacist into a crowd of counter-protesters, killing a woman named. That hate speech is not free speech. Anti-racists who identify with Antifa would like to see major police reforms, but they do not necessarily wish to abolish all government institutions. , the founder of Patriot Prayer, blamed antifa, along with , for breaking up the event. Trump sparked more outrage when he suggested an equivalency between the white supremacists and the protesters on the other side, who despite his claims were mostly peaceful. They're troubling tactically because conservatives use antifa's violence to justify—or at least distract from—the violence of white supremacists, as Trump did in his press conference. QAnon had for months been organizing "digital soldiers" on social media and internet message boards to wage to influence the. " describes antifa as "known for causing damage to property during protests. In the late 1980s and 1990s, ARA activists toured with popular punk rock and skinhead bands in order to prevent , neo-Nazis and other assorted white supremacists from recruiting. However, not all anti-fascist violence is limited to batons and fisticuffs. A union in , also debunking these rumors, described as "an absolute cesspool of misinformation" on the topic. Most antifa activists, says Mark Bray, a history professor and author of Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook, focus on trying to identify the names, addresses, and jobs of white supremacists who are active on the internet, and "outing" them to their employers and the public. Khalil, Ashraf November 9, 2018. However, shoving white nationalists to the ground, punching them in the face, or hitting them with sticks does not constitute the level of violence typically associated with terrorism. such as Antifa were actively engaging in violent actions attacking alt-right demonstrators [. ] A review of the arrests of dozens of people on federal charges reveals no known effort by antifa to perpetrate a coordinated campaign of violence. Over the years, activists on the left have debated. " The notes that, "as their name indicates, Antifa focuses more on fighting far-right ideology than encouraging pro-left policy. In June 2020, the think tank CSIS assembled a database of 893 terrorism incidents in the United States beginning in 1994. Since Floyd's killing, Twitter and Facebook have taken down what Twitter called "hundreds of spammy accounts," many purporting to be antifa and calling for violence against police or white neighborhoods. Here's what we know about the decades-old, leaderless group. Stelter, Brian November 17, 2018. These and other operational security practices are meant to protect activists from unwanted attention by the police and white supremacists. Today the president willingly applies this label to Antifa. soldiers on the streets of American cities. Trump damages the legitimacy of American democracy when he insists that his political opponents are terrorists when they are not. Reinoehl was later by federal authorities as they moved to arrest him. Individuals involved in the movement tend to hold , , and views, subscribing to a range of left-wing ideologies such as , , , , and. To learn more or opt-out, read our. Luckhurst, Phoebe November 25, 2016. According to a report, one of the first groups in the U. Some self-described antifa adherents have organized to , the , and other far-right groups during public demonstrations. buffer [u,d,"xhr-done","xhr-resolved"] ,P. On occasion, Antifa supporters have escalated their violence — particularly in Europe, where anarchists and anti-fascists tend to be more aggressive. The hearing before the House Homeland Security Committee — established after the Sept. Brown, Doug April 25, 2017. "Do they have any semblance of guilt? , a professor of journalism and political science, wrote that "[a]ntifa believes it is pursuing the opposite of authoritarianism. In , a group called the Baldies was formed in 1987 with the intent to fight neo-Nazi groups directly. In February 2019, anti-fascist activists marched in celebration through as a white supremacist, rally planned to be held at the adjacent was cancelled due to infighting and fear of personal safety. Many became aware of antifa as a political movement in 2017 when they showed up at the Charlottesville Unite the Right rally that gathered Nazis and white supremacists. Some of those rallies have devolved into violence. Friedersdorf, Conor August 31, 2017. President Trump pointed a finger at what he called the "alt-left" following the rally in Charlottesville, Virginia in 2017. In August 2017, after violence blew up at protests in Charlottesville, Virginia, the president singled out the groups as part of what he called the alt-left in his initial claim that "many sides" were to blame for the violence, not just neo-Nazis, KKK and white nationalists. According to Natasha Lennard in , antifa groups as of January 2017 were working with groups and churches "to create a New , continuing and expanding a 40-year-old practice of providing spaces for refugees and immigrants. I think Americans can and should have confidence in our election system and certainly in our democracy. In the United States, most [antifa groups] have been anarchist or antiauthoritarian since the emergence of modern antifa under the name Anti-Racist Action ARA in the late eighties. The group also posted addresses of Carlson's brother and a friend who co-founded The Daily Caller. In the case of Antifa, the facts suggest that anti-fascism is not a clear and present terrorist threat in the United States, no matter how much the president may wish otherwise. In September 2020, also condemned antifa violent actions, having previously already condemned violence across the political spectrum and expressed his support for the peaceful protests. Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas; Garcia, Sandra E. " When antifa became prominent in the news during the and was under attack for being responsible for much, if not most of the violence, a report in stated that "[m]embers of antifa groups do more conventional activism, flyer campaigns, and community organizing, on behalf of anti-racist and anti-white nationalist causes", quoting Mark Bray as saying that this was the "vast majority" of what they did. to use the Antifa brand was Rose City Antifa, which was founded in 2007 in Portland, Ore. Davis, Mark September 9, 2017. The Boogaloo movement Boogaloo — which takes its name from the ridiculously titled 1984 movie sequel Breakin' 2: Electric Boogaloo — is a loosely organized, far-right movement that includes gun enthusiasts and white supremacists who say they want to trigger a race war that will bring down the U. Despite antifa's opposition to the Democratic Party and liberalism, some commentators have accused their adherents of being aided by "liberal sympathizers" and "affiliated with the Democratic Party" as well as being "a single organization", "funded by liberal financiers like ", "mastermind[ing] violence at protests", and that "Antifascists are the 'real fascists'", with Bray citing those as examples of five myths about antifa. Legal experts, among others, believe that designating antifa as a terrorist group would be unconstitutional, raising and issues. The antifa groups are decidedly anti-racist, anti-sexist and anti-homophobia, but also by and large socially leftist and anti-capitalist. Fortunately, the Antifa movement in the United States has been less violent than its European counterpart. "AN-tifa" with the emphasis on the first syllable, which sounds more like "on" in English than "an. " Attorney General William Barr on Sunday also blamed antifa and other similar groups over violent protests — which erupted after Floyd, 46, when a Minneapolis police officer knelt on his neck for several minutes — calling the acts "domestic terrorism. Miller, Michael E. Steinmetz, Katy August 14, 2017. ] Antifa, a highly decentralized movement of anti-racists who seek to combat neo-Nazis, white supremacists, and far-right extremists whom Antifa's followers consider 'fascist' [. " In addition, Bray argued that the political right has attempted to "blame everything on antifa" during the George Floyd protests and that in assuming antifa to be "predominantly white", it "evince[s] a kind of racism that assumes that black people couldn't organize on this deep and wide of a scale. " As of June 9, 2020, none of the 51 people facing federal charges were alleged to have links to antifa. Some activists have built peer-to-peer networks, or use encrypted-texting services like. Activities According to Brian Levin, director of the Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism at the , antifa activists feel the need to participate in violent actions because "they believe that elites are controlling the government and the media. Vysotsky, Stanislav 2020. The term is used to define a broad group of people whose political beliefs lean toward the left -- often the far left -- but do not conform with the Democratic Party platform. following a protest outside the home of founder , who has been described by the as "a major supporter of President Donald Trump and his policies". Chiu, Allyson November 8, 2018. But in the name of protecting the vulnerable, antifascists have granted themselves the authority to decide which Americans may publicly assemble and which may not. According to Bray, while "confident that some members of antifa groups have participated in a variety of forms of resistance" during the protests, it is "impossible to ascertain the exact number of people who belong to antifa groups. " Academic , who attended a counter-protest to the , said in an interview that "we would have been crushed like cockroaches if it were not for the anarchists and the anti-fascists", describing a situation where a group of 20 counter-protesters were surrounded by marchers whom he described as "neofascists". The majority of Antifa members do not promote or endorse violence; however, the movement consists of anarchist extremists and other individuals who seek to carry out acts of violence in order to forward their respective agendas. , Fascists go beyond viewing particular categories of people as inferior, based on gender identity, race and ethnicity, religion and sexual orientation. The basis for the conspiracy theory was a series of organized by the group. Journalist makes a distinction between "self-described members of the group" and "anyone who shows up in the streets to protest against fascists", arguing that "Antifa and antifascism are no more synonymous than being a member of Black Lives Matter and believing that black lives matter. in recent years", although "this year the most lethal violence has come from anti-government activists, such as anarchists and militia-types. American Antifa: The Tactics, Culture, and Practice of Militant Antifascism. Some of the groups, such as the 13-year-old Rose City Antifa in Portland, Oregon, the oldest in the U. In , stated that the 33 people arrested for violent incidents were "mostly egged on by the minority of 'Antifa' agitators in the crowd. Also in August 2020, a fake antifa website began to redirect users to the website. " Josh Lipowsky, a senior research analyst with the , stated that "the decentralized antifa movement poses a lesser threat than the better organized groups on the far right. Encyclopedia of Security and Emergency Management. The following month, Antifa activists and other protesters spray-painted graffiti, broke windows, and threw Molotov cocktails during a demonstration at the University of California, Berkeley, to prevent the alt-right provocateur, , from speaking. Right-wing media blames antifa members for rioting and looting. Antifa activists often use the tactic in which people dress in black and cover their faces in order to thwart surveillance and create a sense of equality and solidarity among participants. Academic described antifa as "a major gift to the right", arguing that "the movement was self-destructive and constituted a tiny faction on the periphery of the left. Despite the small size of the Antifa movement, its members do not follow a single ideology. Finally, anti-fascists do not practice a single protest tactic. Snyders, Matt February 20, 2008. 2 ;transition:background-color. " The two groups denied having anything to do with the email.。

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